Nursing care has been mentioned in the Indian culture from the times of the Vedas. However, according to World Health Organization, the nursing workforce in India is still insufficient to meet the needs of the country. The purpose of this article is to examine the status of nursing education and the nursing workforce in India and the challenges faced by the profession. Data supporting the statements made in the article were obtained from the Nursing Council of India, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, the Government of India Web sites, printed journals and communication with experts in the field. In India, there is a need to train approximately a million nurses to meet the current shortfall of health workers in the country. The nursing “brain drain” suggests that it may be one of the factors responsible for this shortfall. Further, nursing education faces challenges, such as streamlining nursing education, enriching the curriculum, strengthening faculty development and increasing the use of innovative teaching and learning techniques.